Извиняюсь, что пока без перевода.
Crowd behavior is influenced by the presence or absence of social factors like leadership, moral
attitudes, and social uniformity. Crowd behavior is also influenced by the psychological factors of
suggestion, imitation, anonymity, impersonality, emotional release, emotional contagion, and panic.
Crowd behavior expresses the emotional needs, resentments, and prejudices of the crowd members.
However, a crowd only does those things that most of its members want to do. The crowd is
influenced by the concerns of its members as to what is right, based on local custom, convention, and
morality. But the emotional stimulus and protection of being in a crowd encourages its members to
unleash impulses, aggressions, and rages that they usually restrain. When blocked from expressing its
emotions in one direction, a crowd's hostility often is or can be redirected elsewhere. In a civil
disturbance environment, any crowd can be a threat to law and order because it is open to
Leadership has a profound effect on the intensity and direction of crowd behavior. In many crowd
situations, the members become frustrated by confusion and uncertainty. They want to be directed.
The first person to give clear orders in an authoritative manner is likely to be followed. When crowd
members become frustrated, radicals can take charge. They can exploit a crowd's mood and turn them
against a convenient target. A skillful agitator can increase a crowd's capacity for violence. He or she
can convert a group of frustrated, resentful people into a vengeful mob. An agitator can direct a
crowd's aggression toward any target included in their resentment. In fact, skillful agitators using
television, radio, and other communications media can reach large portions of the population and
incite them to unlawful acts without having direct personal contact. On the other hand, one person
can sometimes calm or divert a crowd by a strategic suggestion or command. An experienced leader
may be able to calm a crowd, appeal to the reasoning powers of its members, and avoid a serious
Crowd behavior is influenced by emotional contagion. Excitement, transmitted from one person to
another, creates a high state of collective emotion. Ideas conceived by crowd leaders and dominant
crowd members pass rapidly from person to person. These ideas and the general mood of the crowd
sweep to bystanders and curiosity seekers, who can become caught in the wave of excitement and
crowd action. Emotional contagion exceeds the bounds of personal contact. It can be passed by mass
Emotional contagion is especially significant in a civil disturbance environment. It provides the
crowd psychological "unity." The unity is usually temporary. But this unity may be the only
momentum a crowd needs to turn it to mob action. When emotional contagion prevails, selfdiscipline
is low. Normal controls give way to raw emotions. Personal prejudices and unsatisfied
desires, which usually are restrained, are readily released. This is a strong incentive for individuals to
follow the crowd, to do things they have wanted to do but dared not try alone. This contagion can
cause a crowd to lose its concern for law and authority. A crowd that follows its leaders into unlawful
and disruptive acts becomes a mob. Mob behavior is highly emotional. It is often unreasonable. It is
always potentially violent.
In civil disturbances, crowds employ any number of tactics to resist control or to achieve their goals.
Tactics may be unplanned or planned, nonviolent or violent. The more purposeful the disturbance, the
more likely is the possibility of well-planned tactics.
Nonviolent tactics may range from name-calling to building barricades. Demonstrators may converse
with control force members to distract them or to gain their sympathy. Demonstrators may try to
convince control force members to leave their posts and join the demonstrators. They may use verbal
abuse. Obscene remarks, taunts, ridicule, and jeers can be expected. Crowd members want to anger
and demoralize the opposition. They want authorities to take actions that later may be exploited as
acts of brutality.
Sometimes women, children, and elderly people are placed in the front ranks. This plays on a control
force's sympathy to try to discourage countermeasures. When countermeasures are taken, agitators
take photographs to stir public displeasure and to embarrass the control force. Demonstrators may
form human blockades to impede traffic by sitting down in roads or at the entrances to buildings.
This can disrupt normal activity, forcing control personnel to physically remove the demonstrators.
Demonstrators may lock arms, making it hard for the control force to separate and remove them. It
also makes the control force seem to be using excessive force.
Groups of demonstrators may trespass on private or government property. They want to force mass
arrests, overwhelm detainment facilities, and clog the legal system. Or demonstrators may resist by
going limp, forcing control force members to carry them. They may chain or handcuff themselves to
objects or to each other. This prolongs the demonstration. Agitators may spread rumors to incite the
crowd and to try to force the control force to use stronger measures to control or disperse the crowd.
The agitators want to make the control force appear to be using excessive force. Terrorist groups may
try to agitate crowds as a diversion for terrorist acts. They also try to provoke an overreaction by the
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